nomic strategy will focus on creating a highly competitive domestic market that forces com
panies to produce high-value goods so they can pay high wages to highly skilled people.
Because of its long experience in manufacturing, much of tha
t push will be focused on higher value-added production, using the new technologies of r
obotics, artificial intelligence, the internet of things and 5G. This is the only way to avoid the middle-income trap.
The reform and opening-up policies are exactly the kinds of market-driven reforms
needed to make this happen. The Chinese government is investing heavily in research and development, but it sho
uld be noted that the R&D spending as a percentage of GDP is still lower than that of the US.